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Friday, March 4, 2011

What is leadership?


It is very difficult to qualitative define leadership. It is easier to give examples of leaders than to define leadership.  Leadership involves various dimensions and attributes. It requires vision, courage, understanding, determination, decisiveness, sense of timing, capacity to act, ability to inspire, etc. A leader is often judged by his mettle in a crisis. For example, Winston Churchill during the London Blitz, John F Kennedy during the Cuban missile crisis, Indra Gandhi in the 1971 Bangladesh war, marget Thatcher during miner’s strike, Mikhail Gorbachev’s break with communism and the cold war. In these turning points, leadership made a crucial difference in the modern history. It is same in case of leadership in organizations.
            As an effective human being, a leader should have identity, authenticity, open mindedness, independence, responsibility, communication, reasoning and problem solving abilities, concern for others, rest for life energy, maturity, courage (guts), strong sense of obligation, clarity of mind and expression, integrity, etc. Leadership is highly complex and elusive trait.  The above description does not clearly define what leadership is. A leader is one who has followers; is too simple a definition. Leadership is often defined as the art of influencing others ( people) to strive willing; to do what the leader wants them to do ( often to do the mutually compatible objectives) with zeal and confidence . It is encouraging and inspiring individuals and teams to give their best to achieve a desired result. Leaders work with and through people to accomplish goals.  It is psychological process of providing guidance for followers. Leadership is one of the most effective tools of management and organizational effectiveness depends on the quality of leadership. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct and proceed. Earlier we have seen that the management is defined as the management is defined as the process of getting things done through the efforts of other people. Both the definitions overlap and since managers get all sorts things done through the efforts of other people. Both the definitions overlap the since managers get all sorts done through the efforts of other people, they must lead. In other words, by definition all managers are leaders.

Sunday, February 27, 2011

Job Satisfaction: Theory into Practice

Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom line, as temps, recruitment and retraining take their toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction.1 Family physicians who can create work environments that attract, motivate and retain hard-working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in a competitive health care environment that demands quality and cost-efficiency. What's more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive workplace for their employees, they've increased their own job satisfaction as well.
Herzberg's theory
In the late 1950s, Frederick Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:
1.                      Think of a time when you felt especially good about your job. Why did you       feel that way?
2.                      Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you          feel that way?
From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are two dimensions to job satisfaction: motivation and "hygiene" Hygiene issues, according to Herzberg, cannot motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. In other words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygiene topics include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee's environment. Motivators, on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals' needs for meaning and personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Once the hygiene areas are addressed, said Herzberg, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production.

Applying the theory
To apply Herzberg's theory to real-world practice, let's begin with the hygiene issues. Although hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be dealt with first to create an environment in which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible.
Company and administrative policies. An organization's policies can be a great source of frustration for employees if the policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not everyone is required to follow them. Although employees will never feel a great sense of motivation or satisfaction due to your policies, you can decrease dissatisfaction in this area by making sure your policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of your policies-and-procedures manual easily accessible to all members of your staff. If you do not have a written manual, create one, soliciting staff input along the way. If you already have a manual, consider updating it (again, with staff input). You might also compare your policies to those of similar practices and ask yourself whether particular policies are unreasonably strict or whether some penalties are too harsh.
Supervision. To decrease dissatisfaction in this area, you must begin by making wise decisions when you appoint someone to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It requires leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. You should teach your supervisors to use positive feedback whenever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and feedback so that no one feels singled out.
Salary. The old adage "you get what you pay for" tends to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your local help-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits you're offering are comparable to those of other offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises and bonuses.
Interpersonal relations. Remember that part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g., over lunch, during breaks, between patients). This will help them develop a sense of camaraderie and teamwork. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behavior and offensive comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, take charge of the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.
Working conditions. The environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the work they are doing. Do everything you can to keep your equipment and facilities up to date. Even a nice chair can make a world of difference to an individual's psyche. Also, if possible, avoid overcrowding and allow each employee his or her own personal space, whether it be a desk, a locker, or even just a drawer. If you've placed your employees in close quarters with little or no personal space, don't be surprised that there is tension among them.
Before you move on to the motivators, remember that you cannot neglect the hygiene factors discussed above. To do so would be asking for trouble in more than one way. First, your employees would be generally unhappy, and this would be apparent to your patients. Second, your hardworking employees, who can find jobs elsewhere, would leave, while your mediocre employees would stay and compromise your practice's success. So deal with hygiene issues first, then move on to the motivators:
Work itself. Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are meaningful. Emphasize that their contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes and good health care for your patients. Share stories of success about how an employee's actions made a real difference in the life of a patient, or in making a process better. Make a big deal out of meaningful tasks that may have become ordinary, such as new-baby visits. Of course employees may not find all their tasks interesting or rewarding, but you should show the employee how those tasks are essential to the overall processes that make the practice succeed. You may find certain tasks that are truly unnecessary and can be eliminated or streamlined, resulting in greater efficiency and satisfaction.
Achievement. One premise inherent in Herzberg's theory is that most individuals sincerely want to do a good job. To help them, make sure you've placed them in positions that use their talents and are not set up for failure. Set clear, achievable goals and standards for each position, and make sure employees know what those goals and standards are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately challenged in their jobs. Be careful, however, not to overload individuals with challenges that are too difficult or impossible, as that can be paralyzing.
Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well, take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly thank them for handling a situation particularly well. Write them a kind note of praise. Or give them a bonus, if appropriate. You may even want to establish a formal recognition program, such as "employee of the month."
Responsibility. Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have ownership of their work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so that they feel they "own" the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities for added responsibility. Be careful, however, that you do not simply add more work. Instead, find ways to add challenging and meaningful work, perhaps giving the employee greater freedom and authority as well.
Advancement. Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have an open position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a new title that reflects the level of work he or she has achieved. When feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursue further education, which will make them more valuable to your practice and more fulfilled professionally. Motivators, such as recognition and achievement, make workers more productive, creative and committed.
The trickle-down effect
While there is no one right way to manage people, all of whom have different needs, backgrounds and expectations; Herzberg's theory offers a reasonable starting point. By creating an environment that promotes job satisfaction, you are developing employees who are motivated, productive and fulfilled. This, in turn, will contribute to higher quality patient care and patient satisfaction.

Job satisfaction: six factors


Employee survey studies show that employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work. This includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree of challenge, and opportunities for increased responsibility. Important: this is not simply "promotional opportunity." As organizations have become flatter, promotions can be rare. People have found challenge through projects, team leadership, special assignments - as well as promotions.

  • Promote from within when possible.
  • Reward promising employees with roles on interesting projects.
  • Divide jobs into levels of increasing leadership and responsibility.
It may be possible to create job titles that demonstrate increasing levels of expertise which are not limited by availability of positions. They simply demonstrate achievement.


When negative stress is continuously high, job satisfaction is low. Jobs are more stressful if they interfere with employees' personal lives or are a continuing source of worry or concern.

  • Promote a balance of work and personal lives. Make sure that senior managers model this behavior.
  • Distribute work evenly (fairly) within work teams.
  • Review work procedures to remove unnecessary "red tape" or bureaucracy.
  • Manage the number of interruptions employees have to endure while trying to do their jobs.
  • Some organizations utilize exercise or "fun" breaks at work.


Data from employee satisfaction surveys has shown employees are more satisfied when their managers are good leaders. This includes motivating employees to do a good job, striving for excellence, or just taking action.

  • Make sure your managers are well trained. Leadership combines attitudes and behavior. It can be learned.
  • People respond to managers that they can trust and who inspire them to achieve meaningful goals.

Work Standards

Again, our NBRI employee survey data points out that employees are more satisfied when their entire workgroup takes pride in the quality of its work.

  • Encourage communication between employees and customers. Quality gains importance when employees see its impact on customers.
  • Develop meaningful measures of quality. Celebrate achievements in quality.
Trap: Be cautious of slick, "packaged" campaigns that are perceived as superficial and patronizing.

Fair Rewards

Employees are more satisfied when they feel they are rewarded fairly for the work they do. Consider employee responsibilities, the effort they have put forth, the work they have done well, and the demands of their jobs.

  • Make sure rewards are for genuine contributions to the organization.
  • Be consistent in your reward policies.
  • If your wages are competitive, make sure employees know this.
  • Rewards can include a variety of benefits and perks other than money.
As an added benefit, employees who are rewarded fairly, experience less stress.

Adequate Authority

Employees are more satisfied when they have adequate freedom and authority to do their jobs.

When reasonable:
  • Let employees make decisions.
  • Allow employees to have input on decisions that will affect them.
  • Establish work goals, but let employees determine how they will achieve those goals. Later reviews may identify innovative "best practices."
  • Ask, "If there were just one or two decisions that you could make, which ones would make the biggest difference in your job?"