Kateheria Rajput and Kathayat's History Who are the Kateheria? About the middle of the twelfth century the Katehriyas seem to h...
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१.कठेर (रोहिलखण्ड) , कुमाउँ र डोटी राज्यको ऐतिहासिक परिचय : भारत वर्षको प्राचीन इतिहासको मान चित्रण हालको रोहिलखण्ड (कठेर) क्षेत्र प्र...
Background As the world grows smaller because of increasingly efficient global communications and multinational corporations, chances are ...
Some Facts From History (Rohilla Rajput) गौरवशाली इतिहास के कुछ स्वर्णाक्षर ( रोहिला क्षत्रिय ) भारत वर्ष का क्षेत्रफल 4...
Sunday, May 21, 2017
Monday, April 3, 2017
मकवानपुर जिल्लाको इपा पञ्चकन्या गा बि श जहाँ कठायतहरुको बाहुल्यताछ । वडानम्बर ' सात ' जहाँ धुरिको हिसाबले ९९ % कठायतहरु बस्दछन । त्यस लगायत बाँकी सबै वडा हरुमापनी कठायत हरुको बहुल्यता रहेकोछ ।
इतिहाँस मकवानपुर जिल्लाका कठायतहरुको : शैलेन्द्र सिंह कठायत
डोटीका भागीरथ कठायत अन्तार्जातिय विवाह ( नेवार जातकी एक युबतीसँग विवाहगरी ) गरी हाल मकवानपुर जिल्लाको इपा पञ्चकन्या भनेर चिनिने ठाउँमा गएर बस्नुभएको थियो । त्यतिबेला हाम्रा कठायतहरु डोटीराज्यमा राजगरेर बस्दथे । आफ्ना छोरा नाती, दाजुभाइहरु कसैलेपनि नराम्रोकाम या कुनैपरम्परामा, खान्दानमा धक्कालाग्नेकाम गर्नासाथ उनिहरुलाई तुरुन्तै राज्यनिकला गरिन्थ्यो । त्यस्तै भागीरथ कठायतले पनि अन्तर्जातिय विवाह गरेर राज्य निकाला हुनुपर्यो । हाम्रो कठायतहरुको ईतिहासमा यस्ता थुप्रै भागीरथहरु थिए जो राज्यनिकाला भएर कोही खोटाङ त कोही काठमाडौं, कोही पूर्व कोही पश्चिमगरी देशका अन्यन्त्र भागमा छरिएर बस्न पुगेका थिए ।
भागीरथ जब काठमन्डौछिरे त्यतिबेला उनिसँग उनका दुईभाई सहित आएका थिए । तर बिचमा ति दुईभाई कतागए के गरे भन्नेबारेमा ईतिहास केलाउननै बाँकीछ तर सुरुमा ३ दाजुभाइ साथमा बसे । काठमान्डौको दक्षिण तर्फ रहेका दक्षिणकाली माइको मन्दिर देखी केही घण्टा पैदाल जानुपर्ने ठाउँ इपा पञ्चकन्या पनि पहिले काठमन्डौ जिल्ला नै पर्दथियो ।
जग्गा जमिन प्रसस्त भएका काजी, मुखिया खान्दान कठायत बिहान उठेर गाइको दुध चाढाउन दक्षिणकाली पुग्दथे । अहिले पनि इपामा कठायतहरुले दक्षिणकालीलाई आफ्नो कुलदेबतामानि प्रत्यक बर्ष मङ्शिर पुर्णिमाकोदिनमा देवाली गर्ने चलनछ । उतिसमयमा दक्षिणकालीमा दुध चढाएर घरफर्की खनाखाएर आफ्नो दैनिककाममा लाग्दथे । सो गाउँ उनिहरुकोलागि अत्यन्तै स्वर्गसमान थियो । किनकी बजारबाट टाढा बिहान दुधचढाएर समान किन्मेल गरेर घरअफर्की खाना खानकोलागि उनिहरुलाई कुनै समस्या पर्दैनथियो ।
बिस्तारै बिस्तारै त्यस ठाउँमा कठायत हरुको जनसंख्या बढ्दै गयो । कोही राजनीति गर्नतर्फ लगे कोही बसाइसरेर अझ सुगम ठाउँतर्फ जानेक्रम जारी रह्यो । बिस्तारै जनसंख्या बढ्दैगयो, कोही पल्टनमा जागिरखान लागे त कोही भारततिर कमाउन लागे । पहिले श्रीनाथको पल्टन जो नेपालको सबैभन्दा ठुलोगण राजाधानी काठमान्डौमाथियो मेरो आफ्नै बाजे पनि त्योपल्टनमा जागिरए हुनुहुन्थ्यो रे ! मैले थाहापाउदासम्म हर्कबहादुर कठायत गाउको मुखिया हुनुहुन्थ्यो, उहाका सम्पूर्ण परिवार राजनीतिमा लाग्नुभएको थियो । पञ्चायत कालका राजनीतिग्य हाम्रो तिर कठायत बहेकअरु कोहिपनी थिएनन । गोरख बहादुर कठायत उतिबेला काठमाडौं जिल्लाका सभापती हुनुहुन्थ्यो रे । इपामा कठायतहरु मैले थाहा पाउदा सम्म राजगरेरै बस्नुभएको थियो । भागीरथ देखी अहिले हामी १३ अौं पुस्तामा छौ । यि सम्पूर्ण कुराहरु मैलेपनि हाम्रा पुर्खा देखीलेख्दै राख्नुभएका दस्ताबेज मार्फत सङ्कलन गरेको हुँ । एक दिन म काठमाडौं जाना लाग्द स्व बलराम कठायतले मलाई उहाको घरमा बोलाएर '' हेर नाती यो बङ्शावली हो हाम्रो हामीलाई एस्को ठुलो महत्तो छ त्यसकारण तैलेएसलाई छपएर लेरअाइजो भनेर एउटा पुरानो नेपाली कागज जस्मा सम्पूर्णकुराहरु लेखिएको रहेछ त्यो कागज नै नहरा है '' भनेर दिनुभएको थियो । त्यसै कागजलाई आधार बनाएर मैले पनि एत्ती सम्म लेख्ने कोशीस गरे । खास मा हाम्रो कठायत हरुको सम्पूर्ण विवरण भएको बंसावली महेश सिंह कठायत ले तयार पार्नुभएको छ । जस्मा नेपाल अधिराज्यमात्रै हैन भारतदेखीकै हाम्रा पुस्ताहरुको विवरण छन ।
यो पढेर तपाईंहरुलाई पनि इपाको कठायत हरुको बारेमा जानकारी भयो भन्नेमा म विश्वस्थछु । तपाईंहरुपनी इपा गएर उहाहरुसँग भेट्नुस् आफ्नो बन्धु भनेपछी उहाहरु धेरैखुशी हुनुहुन्छ । देवाली मापनि सामेल हुनुस् । काठमाडौं देखी धेरै टाढा को दुरिपनीछैन । कुनैपनी चार्ड बार्डमा तपाईंहरु सजिलै जान सक्नुहुनेछ । गएर आफ्नो परिवार सँग एक्दमै खुशीका साथ मनाउन सक्नुहुनेछ । हामी कठायतहरु एक हौ ।
Thursday, November 24, 2016
Earlier this month, the Central Investigation Bureau (CIB) of Nepal Police arrested three Romanian nationals for supposedly stealing ATM card’s details of some unsuspecting 1,600 ATM card holders in Kathmandu and illegally retrieving their hard earned money.
Luckily, the banks and the law enforcement agency were able to avert losses amounting to large amounts of money this time around. They did so by urging ATM users to change their PIN codes as soon as they suspected theft. But, we might not be so lucky next time. So, if ATM related crimes are to be curbed in the future, the banks, police, and citizens have to remain constantly vigilant, but, more importantly, the government has to be serious about tackling the security aspect of digital transformation.
The government needs to take cyber security seriously as every aspect of our life is getting digitized and, at the same time, banking related crimes are increasing by the day. In reality, even countries that are ICT savvy are not free from cyber crimes. ATM related details in large numbers were also stolen recently from Indian banks earlier this year. It was reported that details of a close to 3.2 million debit cards were stolen from State Bank of India, HDFC Bank, Yes Bank, ICICI Bank and Axis. Luckily, the banks were able to detect the data breach quickly and advise their customers to change their ATM PIN codes avoiding further losses. The law enforcement agency later revealed that hackers had used a malware to compromise the Payment Services Platform used to power ATMs, point of sale (POS) machines, and other financial transactions to steal details of the debit cards.
ATM related crimes are increasing every year. According to the European ATM Crime Report, ATM attacks went up by 80% in the first six months of this year compared to the same period last year. It is estimated that ATM skimmers around the world have swindled as much as 3 billion USD. In case you are wondering, there are several ways criminals can steal ATM Card details. They can hack into the system and steal data. They can install malware in the payment system platforms to steal data from ATMs and POS machines at the stores while the ATM cards are being used. They can also steal ATM’s PIN codes and magnetic data from ATM booths.
There are primarily four steps to stealing ATM Card related information from ATM booths. First, a small device used for copying the ATM card’s magnetic strip’s data is inserted over or into ATM card slots. The card easily passes through the device and inside the ATM machines without any holdup. Since, everything appears to be functionally normally, the ATM card’s data gets copied without unwary user’s knowledge.
Second step is to install a small camera above the number keypad to capture PIN codes. People often mistake the camera with the ATM’s security camera, because the ATM appears to be functioning normally. Covering the keypad while typing PIN Codes is one way to thwart this type of scheme. Unfortunately, criminals have already developed a tool that does not need a camera. A fake keypad is laid over ATM’s real keypad. When the buttons on the keypad overlays are pressed to logs the PIN Codes. Since the real buttons on the ATM keypad are also activated at the same time, cash withdrawal goes as usual making extremely difficult to detect fake keypads.
The third step is to return to the ATM booths and retrieve data capturing accessories. Then software installed on a portable computer is used to copy the ATM’s card’s magnetic strip’s data into bogus cards. The final step is to withdraw money using the ATM Cards with the corresponding PIN codes.
One of the main reasons behind increase ATM related crimes is due to the fact that the banks have traditionally put more emphasis on speed and convenience of technology over security when ATMs were installed a while back. In many cases, security measures adopted by some banks are already obsolete, not that banks don’t care, but because technology is changing at the speed of thought. Also, some banks are reluctant to adhere to the Standards and Guidelines on Electronic Banking.
Besides following he standards and guidelines, the banks have to proactively update security technology because criminals are always good at using the latest and greatest technologies. For example, traditionally, ATM skimmers traditionally needed access to physical cash out machines. But, now criminals have started transmitting ATM data wirelessly over Bluetooth or even cellular data connections. One simple way to prevent this type of crime is to equip ATMs with finger vein technology and facial recognition. Unfortunately, it looks as though this security measure is also soon to be obsolete.
ATMs from a dozen or so European countries were remotely attacked using malware that forced machines to spit out cash. According to Diebold Nixdorf and NCR Corp, the world’s two largest ATM makers, the recent heists in Europe were run from remote command centres. This allowed criminals to target large number of machines in what law enforcement agencies call “smash and grab” operations designed to drain large amounts of cash before banks find out. It will be increasingly difficult to catch the perpetrators in the coming days, because they could be operating over the Internet from anywhere in the world. One thing is for sure, capturing criminals in the new environment will require collaboration with international law enforcement agencies.
Nepal has to develop a comprehensive national cyber security strategy if it is to think about protecting itself from cyber threats that come in many forms. But, what can government do at this stage? Well, for one, it can learn from Singapore. Singapore, a country to have offered the first self driving taxi service in the world is continuously preparing to harness the potential of the digital economy. Just last month, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong launched Singapore’s Cyber Security Strategy that outlines the country’s plan to strengthen the cyber-security resilience.
The Strategy spells out Singapore’s vision, goals, and priorities in the area of cyber security and outlines the country’s commitment to build a resilient and trusted cyber environment. The Singapore Government feels cyber security will be the key enabler of digitally enabled economy and society. The four main pillars underpinning the Strategy are (i) building a resilient infrastructure, (ii) creating a safer cyberspace, (iii) developing a vibrant cyber-security ecosystem, and (iv) strengthening international partnerships.
We have learned the Nepal Telecom Authority (NTA) is busy working on a cyber security strategy with the support of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). It seems has though it will take NTA forever to formulate a Cyber Strategy. It will take ages to implement the strategy. We hope NTA comes out with the Cyber Security Strategy that is future centric, so that is remains valid when and if does come out.
The fact of the matter is Nepal has to embrace the New Digital Age and prosper at all cost. And, it can only do so if the cyber space is made safer for economic activities.
Saturday, September 17, 2016
1) Believe in God ! - Aastik - Accepted
2) Don't believe in God ! - You're accepted as Nastik
3) You want to worship idols - please go ahead. You are a murti pujak.
4) You dont want to worship idols - no problem. You can focus on Nirguna Brahman.
5) You want to criticise something in our religion. Come forward. We are logical. Nyaya, Tarka etc. are core Hindu schools.
6) You want to accept beliefs as it is. Most welcome. Please go ahead with it.
7) You want to start your journey by reading Bhagvad Gita - Sure !
8) You want to start your journey by reading Upanishads - Go ahead.
9) You want to start your journey by reading Purana - Be my guest.
10) You just don't like reading Puranas or other books. No problem my dear. Go by Bhakti tradition . ( bhakti- devotion)
11) You don't like idea of Bhakti ! No problem. Do your Karma. Be a karmayogi.
12) You want to enjoy life. Very good. No problem at all. This is Charvaka Philosophy.
13) You want to abstain from all the enjoyment of life & find God - jai ho ! Be a Sadhu, an ascetic !
14) You don't like the concept of God. You believe in Nature only - Welcome. (Trees are our friends and Prakriti or nature is worthy of worship).
15) You believe in one God or Supreme Energy. Superb! Follow Advaita philosophy
16) You want a Guru. Go ahead. Receive gyaan.
17) You don't want a Guru.. Help yourself ! Meditate, Study !
18) You believe in Female energy ! Shakti is worshipped.
19) You believe that every human being is equal. Yeah! You're awesome, come on let's celebrate Hinduism!
"Vasudhaiva kutumbakam" (the world is a family)
20) You don't have time to celebrate the festival.
Don't worry. One more festival is coming! There are multiple festivals every single day of the year.
21) You are a working person. Don't have time for religion. Its okay. You will still be a Hindu.
22) You like to go to temples. Devotion is loved.
23) You don't like to go to temples - no problem. You are still a Hindu!
24) You know that Hinduism ☺ is a way of life, with considerable freedom.
25) You believe that everything has God in it. So you worship your mother, father, guru, tree, River, Prani-matra, Earth, Universe!
26) And If you don't believe that everything has GOD in it - No problems. Respect your viewpoint.
27) "Sarve jana sukhino bhavantu " (May you all live happily)
You represent this! You're free to choose, my dear Hindu!
This is exactly the essence of Hinduism, all inclusive .. That is why it has withstood the test of time inspite of repeated onslaught both from within and outside, and assimilated every good aspects from everything . That is why it is eternal !!!
There is a saying in Rigveda , the first book ever known to mankind which depicts the Hinduism philosophy in a Nutshell -" Ano bhadrah Krathavo Yanthu Vishwathah"- Let the knowledge come to us from every direction "